Paddy is the biggest crop of India. Rice is the staple food for 75% people of India. Paddy crop is about 200 million tonnes. It will generate 150 million tonnes of rice and 50 million tonnes of rice husk. To remove the rice husk from the paddy and to get the rice is really very simple technology. Previously people used to do by hand pounding. Then simple rice hullers were developed. Hand operated rice hullers also were developed. Any rice milling technology expert still can develop hand operated simple rice huller of 100kg per hour capacity. If human power is utilized, lakhs of people can get employment in preparing rice from paddy at local level i.e. in farms and villages itself. This is surest way of removing exploitation of big rice mills. But now a days there is aversion of utilizing human power. It is considered as drudgery. In fact it should be considered enjoyment to make your own rice from your own rice for your own consumption. This is true Swadeshi work. But if human power is not desired, mechanical power can be used to drive the rice the rice huller for hulling the rice locally. Aim should be that paddy must be processed into rice just in the farm or at least in the village. In no circumstances paddy should go out of village to big rice mills. In processing paddy into rice at the farm level, hurdle is of power only. Electricity is not available in every farm. Diesel engine will become very costly for processing paddy into rice. Now a days small rice hullers are not available. So there is acute need for development of small rice hullers, say 250kg to 500kg processing capacity per hour. It may require 5 to 10HP mechanical power. This much power can be produced at every farm by burning rice husk as fuel in the small boiler thus producing steam and running the 5 to 10 HP steam engine . Roughly 30% rice husk will be consumed in running the rice huller and 70% rice husk will remain surplus. If rice huller has a capacity of 500kg of paddy per hour, then 125 kg rice husk will be produced per hour. Out of this quantity, roughly 40kg of rice husk will be used in the boiler per hour to run the steam engine to drive the rice huller. So steam engine operated rice hullers will be highly viable for farmers, because farmers will be able to sell rice at higher prices than selling the paddy at very low price. One rice huller of 500kg capacity, working 8 hours in a day will process 4000kg of paddy i.e. 4 tonnes in a day. If working season id for 150 days, total processing in a season will be 6000 tonnes. So for processing entire crop of 200milion tonnes, roughly 3 lakh rice hullers will be required. In a present system of big rice mills, they exploit the farmers heavily. They give very low price of paddy to farmers. If total exploitation of centralized rice industry is Rs.5 per kg of paddy, total amount for India becomes 200 million tonnes x 1000 kg x Rs.5 = 1 million x million = 100000 crores . This is a huge money drained from farmers to rice mill owners and rice traders. To stop this exploitation, 3 lakh rice hullers must be developed and installed into villages. The cost of the rice huller may be around Rs.50000/-. Small boilers also can be manufactured in villages by blacksmiths and technicians. So complete power independent rice huller consisting of rice huller , steam engine and boiler will cost roughly 1.5 to 2 lakhs. This will be excellent family enterprise where all near by farmers can get their paddy processed into rice on custom milling basis so that no sales purchase activity will be there and farmers will be the owners of the rice. So they can sell their rice at the better prices. This way entire rice milling business must be fully decentralized into village scale rice hullers and present giant capacity rice mills must die their natural death.
Before the emergence of big rice mils, entire population used to eat unpolished rice everywhere. But big rice millers started polishing of rice for bad profit motive. Because they were knowing that by polishing process outer nutritious elements of rice kernels are removed. So nutrition has also gone and some weight has also gone. So polishing makes double disadvantage. Only for marketing purpose white attractive appearance of rice kernels was created. Now a days it has become wide spread and entire rice production is invariably polished and people have forgotten the beauty of unpolished rice. If this entire rice milling industry is decentralized at village scale, then again there is need to popularize to eat unpolished rice. Ethical traders of rice should make special efforts to popularize unpolished rice in cities. This is subject of mass awareness. The health department of governments also should help to create such awareness. But recent day governments are sold out to multinational companies and centralize big industries. So we can not expect anything from them. So enthusiastic village workers should take up this work of establishing rice hullers in villages and selling unpolished rice into cities by inculcating to the people that real rice is unpolished rice and polished rice is stuff less product. It is our misfortune that entire rice mill industry has been heavily centralized into a few hundred giant rice mills. Crores of our common people have to become victim of exploitation of big rice mills owners. This is the challenge for engineers, technicians and village workers to get rid our entire mass from such pitiful exploitation in the matter of basic food of rice. This is not a very big task. If engineers and technicians start working with full confidence for establishing rice hullers, only within 5 years miracles can be achieved. Technology of rice huller is not complicated at all. Those who jump into business of making tiny rice hullers and disseminating it into villages will earn fortunes.